Theory limescale

Theory of limescale and how limescale reacts


What is limescale?

  • Actual lime (calcium carbonate) exists in three crystalline phases. The most common are aragonite and calcite
  • Gypsum (calcium sulphate)

Calcium carbonate aragonite

Calcium carbonate calcite

When magnified, the microscopic images clearly show how the limescale structure changes under the influence of the alternating current frequency. AquaKLEAR | AquaZino changes the crystal shape resulting in the minerals not depositing on the walls of pipes and heating elements.

How hard water is measured

Water hardness is caused by minerals such as calcium and magnesium. In Germany, water hardness is expressed in German degrees (ºdH), where 1 ºdH corresponds to 10 mg of calcium carbonate per litre of water. Further units for measuring water hardness are the French degree (fH = TH), where 1° corresponds to 10 mg of 'carbonic' lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) per litre of water = 0.56 dH, and the English hardness degree (Clarke = eH), where 1° corresponds to 14.3 mg calcium carbonate per litre of water = 0.8 °dH.

What are physical limescale inhibitors and how do they work?

Physical limescale inhibitors are devices that use physical forces to prevent limescale deposits. They mostly work by means of a magnetic or electrical field. They all have one thing in common in that they have a purely physical effect on the water and do not change its chemical composition, in contrast to so-called salt systems, which draw out the calcium in a targeted manner, and as such chemically inhibit limescale deposits. There are many theories about how physical limescale inhibitors work, which can only be proved with critical scientific examination. It is said that treatment with physical limescale inhibitors changes the structure of the limescale and it is therefore is unable to stick to the pipes.

Other theories say that the treatment forms small crystals as attachment points for limescale crystals formation, so that when the water is heated the limescale in the water forms around itself and not on the walls of the pipe.

Because the chemical composition of the water is not altered by the treatment, the efficiency of such systems cannot be demonstrated by analysing the water either. As a result, it is difficult to provide unequivocal proof of the device's effectiveness. Therefore, there are also devices on the market whose effectiveness is questionable.

Treating the water with physical limescale inhibitors retains the salts required by the human body such as calcium and magnesium without the limescale sticking.

Why AquaZino | AquaKlear work

  • They work by sending pulses throughout the pipe network.
  • They are always working, 24 hours a day.
  • The limescale inhibition signal is spread electrically.
  • The limescale inhibition signal varies, it covers the various
  • problem zones - such as differences in lime content and temperature.

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